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Часть III, раздел 3. Чтение

Время, в течение которого желательно выполнить данный раздел: 15 минут

Инструкции к разделу 3.

В данном разделе вам предстоит прочитать текст, написанный в научном стиле. По прочтение этого текста вам нужно будет ответить на несколько вопросов, к каждому из которых предлагается 4 варианта ответов. Будьте внимательны - вам нужно выбрать не просто подходящий по смыслу вариант, а тот, который наиболее полно отвечает на поставленный вопрос.





     The appearance and the character of a hardened lava field depends on numerous factors. Among the key variables are the chemical nature of the magma and the degree of viscosity of the liquid rock once it begins to flow.
     Since the ultimate nature of lavas is influenced by chemical compositions, it is possible to predict certain aspects of the final appearance of the field from a sample of molten fluid. The main components of lavas are silica and various oxides, including those of potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and aluminium. Magnesium and iron oxides are found in high concentrations in the dark-colored basic basalt, while silica, soda, and potash preponderate in the lighter-colored, acidic felsite rocks.
     The viscosity of the liquid rock helps to determine the appearance of the hardened field's surface. When it issues, the lava is red or even white-hot. It soon begins to cool and the surface darkens and crusts over. In extremely viscous flows, the underpart may yet be in motion as the surface solidifies. The crust breaks up into a mass of jagged blocks of rock that are carried as a tumbling, jostling mass on the surface of the slowly moving stream. When eventually the stream stops and hardens, the field is extremely rough and difficult to traverse. On the other hand, highly liquid lavas may harden with much smoother surfaces that exhibit ropy, curved, wrinkled, and wavelike forms.

24.  The degree of viscosity in newly issued lava is a critical determinant of:

the chemical nature of magma
whether the lava will be red or white-hot
the ultimate nature of the hardened lava field
the viscosity of the liquid rock

25.  The chemical composition of a hardened field:

has nothing to do with the viscosity of the liquid rock
will cause the crusting phenomena common in the hardened lava
is important in shaping the ultimate appearance of the field
depends upon the degree of viscosity of the original liquid rock

26.  In line 11, the word issue most nearly means:

is dormant
heats up
comes out

27.  Knots of surface rocks are characteristic of:

all types of ultimate lava fields
the initial stage of some lava field formation
the end result of some highly viscous flows
only highly liquid, wavelike lava forms

28.  If the hardened lava presents a smoother, wavelike surface it is likely that:

it was not initially a highly liquid lava
it results from a highly liquid lava
its final form will be rough and difficult to traverse
at issue, it was red-hot

29.  The primary function of this passage is to:

explain the primary chemical components of lava, including silica and oxides
predict when volcanic lava will appear
warn of the limitations of viscosity and chemical analysis
discuss two crutial determinants of a hardened lava field's character

30.  The word exhibit in line 16 is closest in meaning to:

give off
put on

31.  This passage would most likely appear in which type of publication?

An introductory college textbook on geography
The national events section of a local newspaper
An introductory college textbook on geology
A tourist brochure for a volcanic region

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Если закончили этот раздел, переходите к Части III, раздел 4. Чтение

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